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Taekwon-Do Theory & Rules

An old proverb says that even heaven cannot make a diligent worker poor. However, in Taekwon-Do, diligence or intensive training alone does not produce quality techniques. On the contrary, instructions from a false or unqualified instructor would be worse than not being taught at all because unscientific movements not only reduce the power but require a tremendous amount of time to correct. On the other hand, under the proper guidance of a competent instructor, a student who trains earnestly with dedication will learn the true techniques of Taekwon-Do in a comparatively short period of time with less effort.

Students should keep in mind the following secrets:
1) To study the theory of power thoroughly.
2) To understand the purpose and method of each movement clearly.
3) To bring the action of eyes, hands, feet and breath into one single coordinated action.
4) To choose the appropriate attacking tool for each vital spot.
5) To become familiar with the correct angle and distance for attack and defence.
6) Keep both the arms and legs bent slightly while movement is in motion.
7) All movements must begin with a backward motion with very few exceptions. However, once the movement is in motion it should not be stopped before reaching the target.
8) To create a sine wave during the movement by utilizing the knee spring properly.
9. To exhale briefly at the moment of each blow excepting a connecting motion.

 

Reproduced from "Taekwon-Do" (The Korean Art of Self Defense) also known as The Condensed Encyclopedia.
Copyright 1988, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1999 General Choi, Hong Hi.

 

WHITE BELT

  • The Founder Of Taekwon-Do - General Choi Hong Hi, 9th Degree Black Belt.

  • Taekwon-Do is a Korean martial art since the Founder was Korean.

  • Taekwon-Do literally means ‘Foot Hand Art’ - The art of hand and foot fighting.

  • Taekwon-Do was founded on 11th April 1955.

  • UKTC - United Kingdom Taekwon-Do Centres.

  • ITF - International Taekwon-Do Federation.

  • Tenets - Courtesy, Integrity, Perseverance, Self Control, Indominatable Spirit.

  • White Belt signifies Innocence. The Student has no previous knowledge of Taekwon-Do.

  • Attention Stance - Charyot Sogi             

  • Parallel Stance - Narani Sogi

  • Sitting Stance - Annun Sogi                              

  • Walking Stance - Gunnun Sogi

  • Fore-Fist - Ap Joomuk                                

  • Knife-Hand - Sonkal

  • Obverse Punch - Baro Jirugi                            

  • Reverse Punch – Bandae Jirugi

  • Outer Forearm - Bakat Palmok                       

  • Inner Forearm - An Palmok

  • Rising Block - Chookyo Makgi            

  • Front Snap Kick - Apcha busigi

  • Front Rising Kick – Apcha Olligi                      

  • Instructor - Sabum

  • Low - Najunde                                    

  • Middle - Kaunde

  • High -  Nopunde                                             

  •  Attention- Charyot                                           

  • Ready – Junbi                                                  
  • Back to Ready - Paro                                      
  • At Ease - Swiyo                                              
  • Dismiss - Hae San  

 

YELLOW TAGS

  • Reverse Punch - Bandae Jirugi

  • L-Stance - Niunja Sogi

  • Guarding Block - Daebi Makgi

  • Front Rising Kick - Apcha Olligi

  • Side Piercing Kick - Yopcha Jirugi

  • Flying High Kick - Twimyo Nopi Chagi

  • 3 Step Sparring - Sambo Matsogi

  • Pattern - Tul - Patterns are various fundamental movements, most of which represent either attack or defence techniques, set to a fixed or logical sequence. The pattern should begin and end on the same spot.

  • Chon-Ji literally means ‘the Heaven, the Earth’. It is, in the Orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner.  This pattern consists of two similar parts; one to represent the Heaven and the other the EarthThe pattern consists of 19 movements.

  • Yellow Belt signifies the Earth from which a plant sprouts and takes root as the Taekwon-Do foundation is being laid.

 

YELLOW BELT

  • L-Stance Knife-Hand Guarding Block - Niunja So Sonkal Daebi Makgi

  • L-Stance Twin Forearm Block - Niunja So Sang Palmok Makgi

  • Flying Side Piercing Kick - Twimyo Yopcha Jirugi

  • Turning Kick - Dollyo Chagi

  • Double Side Piercing Kick - I-Jung Yopcha Jirugi

  • Free Sparring - Jayu Matsogi

  • Dan-Gun is named after the holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year 2333 B.C. The pattern consists of 21 movements.

 

GREEN TAGS

  • Straight Fingertip Thrust - Sun Sonkut Tulgi

  • Wedging Block - Hechyo Makgi

  • Downward Kick - Naeryo Chagi

  • Pick Shape Kick - Gokaeng-i Chagi

  • Do-San is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876-1938). The pattern consists of 24 movements. The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted to furthering the education of Korea and its Independence movement.

  • Green Belt signifies the plants growth as the Taekwon-Do skills begin to develop.

 

GREEN BELT

  • Fixed Stance - Gojung Sogi

  • Bending Ready Stance - Guburyo Junbi Sogi

  • Circular Block - Dollimyo Makgi

  • Crescent Kick - Bandal Chagi

  • Twisting Kick - Bituro Chagi

  • Checking Kick - Cha Momchugi

  • 2-Step Sparring - Ibo Matsogi

  • Won-Hyo was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year of 686A.D. The pattern consists of 28 movements.                    

 

BLUE TAGS

  • Palm Hooking Block - Sonbadak Golcho Makgi

  • Elbow Strike - Palkup Taerigi

  • X-Stance - Kyocha Sogi

  • Back Fist Strike - Dung Joomuk Taerigi

  • High Double Forearm Block - Nopunde Doo Palmok Makgi

  • Pressing Kick - Noollo Chagi

  • Reverse Turning Kick - Bandae Dollyo Chagi

  • Back Piercing Kick - Dwitcha Jirugi

  • Yul-Gok is the pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536-1584) nicknamed the ‘Confuscious of Korea’. The pattern consists of 38 movements. The 38 movements represent his birthplace on 38 Degrees Latitude and the pattern Diagram represents ‘scholar’.

  • Blue Belt signifies the Heaven, towards which the plant matures into a towering tree as training in Taekwon-Do progresses.

 

BLUE BELT

  • Palm Upward Block - Sonbadak Ollyo Makgi

  • Upper Elbow Strike – Wi Palkup Taerigi

  • X-Fist Rising Block - Kyocha Joomuk Chookyo Makgi

  • Twin Vertical Punch – Sang Sewo Jirugi

  • Twin Upset punch – Sang Dwijibo Jirugi

  • Release – Jappyosul Tae

  • Low Stance - Nachuo Sogi

  • Palm Pressing Block - Sonbadak Noollo Makgi

  • Close Stance - Moa Sogi

  • Angle Punch - Giokja Jirugi

  • U-Shape Block - Digutcha Makgi

  • Hooking Kick - Golcho Chagi

  • Reverse Hooking Kick - Bandae Dollyo Gorochagi

  • Semi-Free Sparring - Ban Jayu Matsogi

  • Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro-Bumi Ito, the first Japanese Governor- General of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. The Pattern consists of 32 movements. The 32 movements represent Mr Ahns age when he was executed at Lui-Shung prison (1910).

 

RED TAGS

  •  Low Upset Thrust - Najunde Dwijibun Sonkut Tulgi

  • Close Stance – Moa Sogi

  • X-Fist Pressing Block - Kyocha Joomuk Noolo Makgi

  • Twin Vertical Punch - Sang Sewo Jirugi

  • Twin Side Elbow Thrust - Sang Yop Palkup Tulgi

  • Double Forearm Pushing Block – Doo Palmok Miro Makgi

  • Knee – Moorup

  • Upward Kick – Ollyo Chagi

  • High Flat Finger-Tip Thrust - Nopunde Opun Sonkut Tulgi

  • Flying Reverse Turning Kick - Twimyo Bandae Dollyo Chagi

  • Flying Back Piercing Kick - Twimyo Dwitcha Jirugi

  •  Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th Century), an authority on neo-Confucianism. The pattern consists of 37 movements. The 37 movements refer to his birthplace on 37 Degrees lattitude, and the diagram represents ‘scholar’

  •  Red Belt signifies danger, cautioning the student to exercise control and warning the opponent to stay away.

 

RED BELT

  • Pushing Block - Miro Makgi

  • Upward Punch - Ollyo Jirugi

  • Vertical Stance - Soojik Sogi

  • Downward Knifehand Strike - Naeryo Sonkal Taerigi

  • L-Stance Obverse Punch – Niunja So Baro Jirugi

  • Elbow Thrust - Palkup Tulgi

  • High Inner Forearm Side Block - Nopunde An Palmok Yop Makgi

  • 1-Step Sparring - Ilbo Matsogi

  • Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group which originated in the Silla dynasty in the early 7th century. The pattern consists of 29 movements. The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Taekwon-Do developed into maturity.

 

BLACK TAGS

  • Inward Knifehand Strike - Anuro Sonkal Taerigi

  • High Reverse Knifehand Front Strike - Nopunde Sonkal Dung Ap Taerigi

  • Inward Outer Forearm Block - Anuro Bakat Palmok Makgi

  • X Knife-Hand Block - Kyocha Sonkal Makgi

  • Consecutive Kick - Yonsok Chagi

  • Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Lee dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armoured battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason why this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the king.  The pattern consists of 30 movements.

  • Black Belt is the opposite of white, signifying the maturity and proficiency in Taekwon-Do. It also indicates the wearers imperviousness to darkness and fear.

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